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human brainIn this post we will review what organoids are and how they are used to create in vitro models to study organ function and human disease states in three dimensions. We'll cover the topic of organoid transfection via electroporation in more detail. Finally, we will highlight and summarize findings reported by Ogawa et al. 2018. Cell Reports 23, 1220-1229. These researchers utilized electroporation of CRISPR/Cas9 constructs to achieve gene modification of human cerebral organoids, resulting in a glioblastoma tumor model that could be further studied in vivo in xenografted mice.  

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Posted By Michelle M. Ng, Ph. D.


Electrical Resistance and Conductivity have Effects on Electroporation Experiments

In this post we will explore the relationship between electrical resistance and electrical conductance. We will also provide information on how resistance applies to electroporation applications, and finally we will answer a FAQ on the topic of sample resistance values in electroporation instrument log data.  

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Posted By Michelle M. Ng, Ph. D.

Optimizing Electroporation Parameters to Achieve the Highest Transfection Efficiency

In this series of posts we will be providing tips for developing and improving your own custom electroporation method. Today we will explore Episode 9 - Guidelines for Bacterial Cells. We offer a protocol for preparing electrocompetent bacteria and some general guidelines for transforming bacteria with electroporation as well.  

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Posted By Michelle M. Ng, Ph. D.

Optimizing Electroporation Parameters to Achieve the Highest Transfection Efficiency

In this series of posts we are providing tips for developing and improving your own custom electroporation method. Today we will explore Episode 8 - Guidelines For Mammalian Cells. Don’t reinvent the wheel! if there is a protocol or published reference with electroporation parameters for your specific cell line/type (or for a similar cell type, start with it! We offer a Protocol Database searchable by cell type and some General Guidelines for Mammalian Cell Electroporation as well.  

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Posted By Michelle M. Ng, Ph. D.

Optimizing Electroporation Parameters to Achieve the Highest Transfection Efficiency

In this series of posts we will be giving tips for developing and optimizing your own custom electroporation method. Today we will explore Episode 7 - Buffer Considerations. The buffer that cells and transfectant are suspended at the time of transfection can affect the viability of cells or the stability of transfectant. Here are some recommendations based on cell type.  

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Posted By Michelle M. Ng, Ph. D.

Optimizing Electroporation Parameters to Achieve the Highest Transfection Efficiency

In this series of posts we will be giving tips for developing and improving your own custom electroporation method. Today we will explore Episode 6 - Optimizing Cell Density. Cell density at the time of transfection can significantly affect transfection efficiency. Specifically, if the cells are too dilute or too dense at the time of harvest or the time of transfection, then viability or efficiency may be compromised. Here are some guidelines to help achieve optimal cell densities by cell type. 

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Posted By Michelle M. Ng, Ph. D.

Optimizing Electroporation Parameters to Achieve the Highest Transfection Efficiency

In this series of posts we will be giving tips for developing or improving your own custom electroporation method. Today we will explore Episode 5 - Considering Transfectant Amount. Transfectant is the molecule of interest that you wish to deliver to your target cells or tissues. The amount of transfectant used in your experiment can impact transfection efficiency. Increasing the amount of transfectant can boost efficiency up to a point; determining the optimal amount to use by running a titration experiment can be helpful.  

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Posted By Michelle M. Ng, Ph. D.

Optimizing Electroporation Parameters to Achieve the Highest Transfection Efficiency

In this series of posts we will be giving tips for developing or improving your own custom electroporation method. Today we will explore Episode 4 - Temperature Considerations.The majority of mammalian cells are electroporated efficiently at room temperature. However there are couple reasons to consider an electroporation experiment at a lower temperature such as 4 ͦC.  

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Posted By Michelle M. Ng, Ph. D.

Optimizing Electroporation Parameters to Achieve the Highest Transfection Efficiency

In this series of posts we will be giving tips for developing or improving your own custom electroporation method. Today we will explore Episode 3 - Scaling Up and Down. There is some room for scaling electroporation volumes up and down just by switching cuvette gap sizes. For even larger volumes you will need to move to a different type of chamber.  

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Posted By Michelle M. Ng Ph. D.

Optimizing Electroporation Parameters to Achieve the Highest Transfection Efficiency

In this series of posts we will be giving tips for developing or improving your own custom electroporation method. Today we will explore Episode 2 - Converting Between Different Gap Sizes. Today we will explain how to convert between two electrodes or cuvettes with different gap sizes.  

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Posted By Michelle M. Ng, Ph. D.
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